Nekhvyadovich A. I. CRITERIA for evaluating the PROSPECTS of ATHLETES ON INDICATORS of ENERGY
At the present time the differences in the energy characteristics of General endurance athletes when performing physical activities. The choice of a metabolic pathway is determined by the resistance of the body to work on endurance /1, 2/. However, the question remains about the impact of
body type on the features of energy supply of muscular activity, and also is it possible to determine the range of aerobic and anaerobic endurance athletes based on their somatic features.
In this regard, the aim of this study was to determine the peculiarities of the processes of energy supply for the sportswomen of high qualification of different somatotype.
Surveyed 122 athletes aged 16-28 years, have the qualification of master of sports (MS) and master of sport international class (MSIC), specializing in swimming, athletics, rowing, rowing, biathlon, cross-country skiing.
Assessment of body type were made by the scheme Galanta I. B. (1927) with the following main characteristics: the degree of development of adiposis has been carried out and the degree of development of muscles. Additional signs involved in the differentiation of types, were as follows: the form of the thorax, the shape of the abdomen, the shape of the back. Body length and development of the skeleton as the basis of the type of Constitution in this case was not taken into account.
To test overall physical performance (FIB) was used submaximal Bicycle exercise test with a “step” increasing load until failure (I. V. Aulik. 1979). The initial load was 600 KGM/min (or 100 watts). The duration of each stage was 2 minutes. Normal pedaling speed corresponded to 60 rpm. Every two minutes, the load capacity was increased by 150 KGM/min (25 W) without rest intervals.
Blood sampling was performed from the pulp of the finger alone, each stage and after the load. In the serum was determined the content of lactate by enzymatic method using standard kits of reagents and spectrophotometer “Screen master PLUS” firm “Hospitex Diagnostics” (made in Italy). In addition, at each stage of the job was fixed heart rate.
Investigated the height and weight dimensions, composition of the body mass. To assess the overall physical and functional training defined indicators reached the maximum load power , aerobic and anaerobic threshold (AP, KGM/min and ANP, KGM/min), the content of lactate (lactate, mmol/l) and heart rate at the height of the load (Cssmax. beats/min).
Additionally, by calculation, was determined: 1) the relative performance of anaerobic threshold expressed in percents of the maximum achieved load power (ANP, %) for assessing the aerobic capacity; 2) the ratio of the maximum achieved load power to the total mass body to determine the load per kg of body weight; 3) the ratio of the load power at the level of anaerobic threshold to muscle mass (ANP/to the muscular mass %) to determine the threshold value of the load; 4) the ratio of the threshold level of lactate (mg%) to the threshold load power (lactate h/ANP, CONV. units) after work and lactate level to the maximum output loadfor the assessment of energy expenditure, respectively, under aerobic and anaerobic work.
Depending on body type all women have been aggregated in the following groups:group 1 – the asthenic somatotype code 1(1,1) – 9 persons, 2-I – group steepletone somatotype – 1(1,2) – 53 pax group 3 – metaplasticity – 2(2,1) – 40 4-I – subtleties – 2(2,2) – 12 people 5-I – pyknics – 3(3,1) – 4 6-I – neuroplasticity – 3(3,2) – 2 people 7-I mixed type – 2 people most of the athletes had steeplelike and metaplasticity the somatotypes. Asthenic somatotype was represented by one swimmer, 6 athletics (7-Borje, running the 800 m race walk), a minute and a skier. Subtleties somatotype amounted ladies swimming (2), academic rowing (2), track and field in the shot put and the hammer throw (2), biathlon (2) and 4 skiers-racers. Pyknics, neuroplasticity and mixed somatotypes amounted to athletes who train in track and field in the shot put, the hammer throw and the disc. Athletes athletic physique is not revealed.