Adaptation of the heart to physical activity – Especially the hearts of the athletes – Features heart
The concept of “athletic heart” was first introduced into literature in 1899, a German scientist Henschen. By this term he meant the enlarged heart of a sportsman and is regarded as a pathological phenomenon. The term “athletic heart” is preserved in the present and is widely used.
The definition given by G. F. lang sports heart; the term “athlete’s heart” can be interpreted two ways: 1) as the heart is more functional (in the sense of ability to meet, through systematic training, higher standards. met him at extreme and prolonged physical work), or 2) as the heart of a pathologically altered, with reduced performance as a result of excessive
stress sports. Production of wooden Windows and pictures
Speaking of sports heart should mention the work of a major Soviet therapist V. F. Zelenin, who regarded the enlargement of the heart as an adaptation and drew attention to the fact that the increased size of the heart of athletes is mainly due to the dilatation of its cavities.
The increase in heart size is a consequence of any increase in its cavities, or thickening of the walls of the ventricles.
Dilation, or expansion of the cavities of the heart, applies to both ventricles and Atria. Most important is the dilatation of the ventricles. It provides one of the important functional properties sports heart – high performance.
In healthy untrained men aged 20-30 years, the volume of the heart is an average of 760 cm3, and women 580 cm3 (about the size of the athlete’s heart is judged according to teleroentgenological research: conducted two x-ray in the frontal and sagittal projections. Obtained radiographs examined by a doctor, which calculates the amount of athlete’s heart).
The size of the heart in athletes is largely determined by the nature of the sports activities (see Annex 1). The largest heart size observed in athletes who train for endurance: skiers, cyclists, runners on middle and long distances. Several smaller the size of the heart in athletes in training which stamina is given a certain value, although this physical quality and is not dominant in this sport (Boxing, wrestling, sports games, etc.).
Finally, athletes, developing mainly speed and power performance, cardiac output increased very slightly compared to untrained people. These patterns are in good agreement with the theory. Indeed, the high performance of the cardiovascular system, necessary only in the sport connected with the manifestation of endurance.
Thus, the dilatation is characteristic not for the hearts of athletes in General, but only to the hearts of those who train for endurance. Dilatation of the heart from representatives of speed-strength sports in connection with all of these is not rational.
Such cases shall be subject to in-depth medical monitoring to ascertain the reasons for the increase heart.
It is obvious that the physiological athlete’s heart dilatation is limited to certain boundaries. Excessive cardiac output (1200 cm3), even in athletes who train for endurance may be a result of the transition of the physiological dilatation of the heart in pathological. The significant increase of the heart ( sometimes up to 1700 cm3 ) reflects the presence of pathological processes in the heart muscle, which can develop through poor training.